Trenton Falls is located roughly between 43° 15' N and 43° 17' 30" N today, but was not at this mid-latitude position when the Trenton limestones were deposited. In fact, Trenton Falls and most of North America were not even located in the northern hemisphere. Due to relatively slow rates of continental drift over the course of nearly 460 million years, North America rotated in its orientation and has migrated from its sub-equatorial position in Ordovician time to its current temperate latitudinal position.
The following section will introduce concepts documenting the paleogeographic setting of New York State and the Trenton Falls region during the Upper Ordovician. Because of the added dimension of time, the paleogeographic discussions will also consider geographic change during the several million years of deposition encompassed in the Trenton limestones.